The number of women in the labour market has been rising steadily since the 1970s. Now, government statistics show that around three quarters of UK women are either working or looking for work. But of these, less than 5% work in skilled trades, such as electrics, plumbing, plastering and the motor industry. Depending on the trade, men will outnumber women in these areas by at least ten to one.
Find out why Which? Trusted traders love their jobs, or read on for more about women working in traditionally male trades.
Outnumbered for now
The experience of being outnumbered is something our female Which? Trusted traders are familiar with. Jane Russell, owner of Garage Express, said she’s ‘surrounded by men.’ Dawn Farrell, who runs Pro Fuel Recovery, says she has been in engineering roles her entire life and has always been the only woman. She said: ‘Even when I was at school I was the only girl in woodwork and metalwork. Same at college – every college I went to.’
So what is it that’s putting women off? Rachel Gilbert, electrician at R2D Electricals, said: ‘Potentially it’s because it’s so hands-on, you’ve got to get stuck in, but I don’t see an issue with that at all.’ Dawn agreed that for her, the practical, hands-on nature of the work is something she really enjoys.
Garage Express’ Jane Russell is hopeful that more women will be encouraged to enter the motor industry as technology changes the nature of the work involved. She said: ‘The reputation of the motor industry is that it’s a dirty trade – spanners and oil.’ But as she points out, ‘a lot of modern cars are more about computers than spanners, so technicians need to understand the electrical and computing side of vehicles. You have to be smart to work on these vehicles - brute force doesn’t cut it anymore.’
It may be that times are changing across the board. Increasing numbers of women are taking up apprenticeships and, although their numbers are still small, some media outlets are already reporting on the rise of ‘white-van woman’.
Breaking with tradition
Trade associations are responding to skills shortages by focusing on getting more women into their sectors. The National Inspection Council for Electrical Installation Contracting (NICEIC) aims to promote jobs for young women in the electrical industry with its Jobs for the Girls campaign. Women in Plumbing was set up in 2002 as a support network for women in the industry, and Watersafe runs a Get Girls Plumbing campaign offering support to women wanting to enter the industry.
This support is crucial for women to overcome conscious and unconscious barriers. Many women don't believe they can actually do the job. Van Girls’ Emma Lanman highlighted the lack of role models for girls, saying ‘women haven’t been working in these male dominated worlds for very long. Girls don’t dream of doing things like starting a removal company. You have to really want to go and do it because it isn’t an obvious career path.’
R2D’s Rachel Gilbert said: ‘If more women start to join the electrical trade, then it could inspire others. Provided you get the right training, go to college and get practical hands-on experience, anyone can do it.’
It can feel daunting to go into a very male-dominated career. As Emma says, ‘You’re not always welcome or judged to be capable. You have to prove yourself more than a bloke would – that can put women off.’ But as she points out, female-run companies like Van Girls make it a bit easier. And as her experience bears out, the demand is certainly there.
Demand from consumers for female traders
Van Girls started as a side-project for Emma Lanman, while she was working as a fire fighter. She freely admits to knowing little about marketing when she started out, so her clientele ‘had to be people who were trying hard to find us and that tended to be women who had bad experiences in the past.’ Eventually Van Girls became so successful she had to give up the fire fighting. She says their customers are more mixed now, and include lots of young families, but Van Girls still serves customers who are specifically looking for women to move them for cultural, safety and security reasons.
A Watersafe survey found 31% of women polled would prefer a female plumber to come into their home. As R2D Electrical’s Rachel Gilbert says: ‘So many of our customers have liked the fact that they’ve got a woman coming into their home – particularly mums, single women, elderly women on their own – it feels safer for them than having a strange man walking in.’
Jane Russell told us that her team deliberately sets out to make women feel comfortable in the garage environment. That means creating comfortable and clean waiting areas, but also trying more broadly to change the reputation of the motor industry, ‘not just for shoddy workmanship or trying to pull the wool over people’s eyes, but also in terms of women feeling comfortable and confident they will be spoken to as an equal and treated fairly.’
But there is some way to go. Research by trade associations showed that only one in every 1,000 electrical contractors is female. Plasterers and plumbers do slightly better, with 1% being female. Women make up a comparatively huge 2% of the motor trade – but with fewer of them being in technical roles.
A positive advantage
Being a woman in a male-dominated world can help to set you and your business apart from the competition. Jane Russell told us: ‘Being a woman in the industry is really interesting because there aren’t many of us, so it’s a massive opportunity for someone to succeed and to stand out from the crowd. There’s positive discrimination there in that I’ve definitely had invitations to be involved with events because I’m a woman.’
Jas Rangi from Third Eye Security said it could be a real advantage being a woman in a man’s world. ‘I think women are more emotionally intelligent, so if I was at a disadvantage with a company or a customer, I’d know how to use that.’
Sadly, not everyone’s experience of discrimination is so positive. Jane Russell reports being ignored by sales reps, who are ‘looking for the boss’ – although she actually sees that as a benefit when she doesn’t want to talk to them. Emma Lanman says that her team constantly have to answer questions about whether they are strong enough to do the job and she feels some people’s preconceptions mean that part of the market is closed to her company.
Dawn Farrell also said she had experienced discrimination throughout her career, with colleagues and customers often assuming she was unable to do the job, or needed help when she didn’t. However, she would still advise girls to go into engineering if that’s what they want to do, saying: ‘You just have to push through and do what makes you happy.’
There’s little doubt that more women will need to go into manual trades if the UK is to avoid skills shortages in the future. At least the next generation can already see our female Which? Trusted traders showing that it’s not just a man’s world - there’s room for women here, too.